好运快三开户Dr William Masters was reading a book about mosquitoes when inspiration struck. “There was this anecdote about the great yellow fever epidemic that hit Philadelphia in 1793,” Masters recalls. “This epidemic decimated the city until the first frost came.” The inclement weather froze out the insects, allowing Philadephia to recover.


好运快三开户If weather could be the key to a city's fortunes. Masters thought, then why not to the historical fortunes of nations? And could frost lie at the heart of one of the most enduring economic mysteries of all - why are almost all the wealthy, industrialised nations to be found at latitudes above 40 degrees? After two years of research, he thinks that he has found a piece of the puzzle. Masters, an agricultural economist from Purdue University in Indiana, and Margaret McMillan at Tufts University, Boston, show that annual frosts are among the factors that distinguish rich nations from poor ones. Their study is published this month in the Journal of Economic Growth. The pair speculates that cold snaps have two main benefits — they freeze pests that would otherwise destroy crops, and also freeze organisms, such as mosquitoes, that carry disease. The result is agricultural abundance and a big workforce.


The academics took two sets of information. The first was average income for countries, the second climate data from the University of East Anglia. They found a curious tally between the sets. Countries having five or more frosty days a month are uniformly rich; those with fewer than five are impoverished. The authors speculate that the five-day figure is important; it could be the minimum time needed to kill pests in the soil. Masters says: "For example, Finland is a small country that is growing quickly, but Bolivia is a small country that isn't growing at all. Perhaps climate has something to do with that." In fact, limited frosts bring huge benefits to farmers. The chills kill insects or render them inactive; cold weather slows the break-up of plant and animal material in the soil, allowing it to become richer; and frosts ensure a build-up of moisture in the ground for spring, reducing dependence on seasonal rains. There are exceptions to the "cold equals rich" argument. There are well-heeled tropical countries such as Hong Kong and Singapore (both city- states, Masters notes), a result of their superior trading positions. Likewise, not all European countries are moneyed — in the former communist colonies, economic potential was crushed by politics.


Masters stresses that climate will never be the overriding factor — the wealth of nations is too complicated to be attributable to just one factor. Climate, he feels, somehow combines with other factors - such as the presence of institutions, including governments, and access to trading routes - to determine whether a country will do well. Traditionally, Masters says, economists thought that institutions had the biggest effect on the economy, because they brought order to a country in the form of, for example, laws and property rights. With order, so the thinking went, came affluence. "But there are some problems that even countries with institutions have not been able to get around," he says. "My feeling is that, as countries get richer, they get better institutions. And the accumulation of wealth and improvement in governing institutions are both helped by a favourable environment, including climate."


This does not mean, he insists, that tropical countries are beyond economic help and destined to remain penniless. Instead, richer countries should change the way in which foreign aid is given. Instead of aid being geared towards improving governance, it should be spent on technology to improve agriculture and to combat disease. Masters cites one example: "There are regions in India that have been provided with irrigation - agricultural productivity has gone up and there has been an improvement in health." Supplying vaccines against tropical diseases and developing crop varieties that can grow in the tropics would break the poverty cycle.


好运快三开户Other minds have applied themselves to the split between poor and rich nations, citing anthropological, climatic and zoological reasons for why temperate nations are the most affluent. In 350BC, Aristotle observed that "those who live in a cold climate ... are full of spirit". Jared Diamond, from the University of California at Los Angeles, pointed out in his book Guns, Genus and Steel that Eurasia is broadly aligned east-west, while Africa and the Americas are aligned north-south. So, in Europe, crops can spread quickly across latitudes because climates are similar. One of the first domesticated crops, einkorn wheat, spread quickly from the Middle East into Europe; it took twice as long for corn to spread from Mexico to what is now the eastern United States. This easy movement along similar latitudes in Eurasia would also have meant a faster dissemination of other technologies such as the wheel and writing, Diamond speculates. The region also boasted domesticated livestock, which could provide meat, wool and motive power in the fields. Blessed with such natural advantages, Eurasia was bound to take off economically.


好运快三开户John Gallup and Jeffrey Sachs, two US economists, have also pointed out striking correlations between the geographical location of countries and their wealth. They note that tropical countries between 23.45 degrees north and south of the equator are nearly all poor. In an article for the Harvard International Review, they concluded that “development surely seems to favour the temperate-zone economies, especially those in the northern hemisphere, and those that have managed to avoid both socialism and the ravages of war". But Masters cautions against geographical determinism, the idea that tropical countries are beyond hope: "Human health and agriculture can be made better through scientific and technological research," he says, "so we shouldn't be writing off these countries. Take Singapore: without air conditioning, it wouldn't be rich."

好运快三开户Questions 14-20

好运快三开户The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-G

Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-G from the list below.

Write the correct number, i-xi, in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings

i. The positive correlation between climate and country

ii. The wealth influenced by other factors besides climate

iii. The inspiration from reading a book

iv. Other researcher results still do not rule out exceptional cases.

好运快三开户v. Eruasia has different attributes with Africa

vi. Low temperature may benefit people and crop

好运快三开户vii. The traditional view reflecting the importance of institution.

viii. The best result to use aid which makes a difference

ix. The spread of crop in European and other courtiers

x. confusions and exceptional cases such as Singapore

好运快三开户14. Paragraph A

15. Paragraph B

16. Paragraph C

17. Paragraph D

好运快三开户18. Paragraph E

好运快三开户19. Paragraph F

20. Paragraph G

Questions 21-26


Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using no more than two words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 21-26 on your answer sheet.

Dr William Master read a book saying that a (an) 21 which struck an American city of Philadelphia hundreds years ago, had been terminated by a cold frost. And academics found that there is a positive contribution of a certain period of cold days to economic success as in the small country of 22 ;Yet besides excellent surroundings and climate, one country need to improve both their economy and 23 to achieve long prosperity.

Thanks to resembling weather condition across latitude, the whole continent of 24 enjoys faster spread of its uniformity in many economic factors. Also the crop such as 25 is bound to spread faster than those countries aligned from South America to the North. William Master finally pointed out though geographical factors are important but tropical country such as 26 still become rich due to scientific advancement.

你和雅思的故事 - Go Hard or Go Home

發表于 2020-05-08



從2017考試看來,雅思英語聽力考試總體趨勢分析并不大,承襲雅思英語聽力基本考試的發展趨勢.縱覽全年度的雅思英語聽力考試題型設定,總體上填空在考試中常占占比依然持續上升,占50%之上,每輪考試填空最少出現20題,有時候乃至達到30題(重中之重:此出卷規律性和劍橋大學12如出一轍,劍橋大學12中S1和S4全是填空, 因而一定要把握基本語匯,留意高頻率情景語匯拼讀的精確性);次之是單項選擇題,匹配題,地形圖題.全部上半年度,去除填空之外,關鍵調查題型為單項選擇題,而第三季度則以匹配題主導.

好运快三开户除此之外,就全部17年48場考試來講,地形圖題考了13場,均值每個月調查一次上下,影響力依然相對性牢固,不可小覷.情景調查上:在考試真題追憶中,們能夠 顯著看得出,一些高頻率情景話題如:section1 常出基本資料,以資詢類主導;section2常出詳細介紹類,主題風格包含旅游商品、綜藝節目主題活動、環境保護、買東西等多種多樣主題;Section3學術討論和工作探討,探討的內容一般 與學員的技術專業或課程內容工作密切相關,包括微生物、國際商務、體育文化、地質學、小車、診療這些;section4仍為技術專業的學術研究專題講座,專題講座內容關鍵包括小動物、造型藝術、歷史時間、身心健康、高新科技、自然環境、考古學等,這種話題還是必須學生們好好地提前準備,才可以保證以問題為導向.此外資詢類(包含課程內容資詢、旅游咨詢、租房子資詢等)仍為第一部分調查的基調,占43.75%.所以說對于高頻率情景,學生還是務必用心掌握有關高頻率考察點和開展語匯累積.


17年雅思口語Part 1每一季度最受歡迎的話題類型是吃穿住行,其下的支系話題總數在第一季度和第二季度尤其突顯,均有14個支系話題有被調查到,是別的五個類型話題總數的2倍之上.第三季度時,吃穿住行話題的支系話題總數有一定的降低,但依然為應季總數數最多的歸類話題.角色類、高新科技與新聞媒體、抽象類話題在第二季度和第三季度從后面追上,變成17年第三季度繼吃穿住行以后,比較受歡迎的Part 一分類話題.

17年雅思口語Part 2 一共出現題卡184個,在其中第一季度(1-4月)和第二季度(5-八月)出現的題卡多見,各自做到64和63個,第三季度(9-11月)題卡總數相對性降低,僅57個.題卡依照話題區劃一共分成五類,分別是角色類,地址類,親身經歷惡性事件類,物件類和新聞媒體類.

雅思口語Part 3是英語口語考試中較難的一部分,也是最后的沖刺高分數的重要.17年英語口語Part 3一部分,出現過的題型區劃為高頻率話題和高頻率轉變方式兩類,高頻率話題包含人人平等難題、高新科技難題、文化藝術價值觀念、運動與健康難題、工作問題、新聞媒體類、教育熱點問題、城市化問題等9問題.了解大作文話題的同學們發覺這和大作文的題目話題有令人震驚的類似,的確這般,因此十分提議諸位涮羊肉把part3難題和手游大作文聯和在一起預備會更高效率哦.高頻率方式包含個體差異比照、將來的邁向、年紀差別比照、事情優點和缺點的例舉和較為等4大方式.




從話題視角剖析17年的雅思閱讀考題,17年雅思閱讀的話題著重點之一是微生物自然環境類,全年度一共出現36次,占有率25%.在其中涉及到的話題包含動物類(The Culture of Chimpanzee),生態環境保護(trending slightly: the growth of ecotourism),綠色植物類(Going bananas)等.人文科學類話題的出現頻率也與微生物自然環境類非常,出現37次,變成了流行的話題.在其中細分化的話題包含人際交往(Personality and Communication Conflicts),社會問題(The Benefits of Playing Video Games),心理研究(Why are we Happy)等.其他出現較多的話題包含文化藝術藝術類專業(The Power of Music),出現有21一篇文章,科技進步類(Biometrics Design),有17篇.調查相對性較少的是文化教育心理狀態類,歷史時間發展趨勢類,角色傳記類和健康醫療類.


縱覽17年雅思寫作,考試持續穩步增長變的發展趨勢,但變幅并不是挺大.尺寸優秀作文題型仍然平穩,小作文仍然緊緊圍繞線柱餅表,地圖步驟和組合圖考察,并沒有出現全新升級題型.大作文依然是見解探討利與弊匯報及其復合型類題型的考察.轉變關鍵反映在小作文所述幾種題型遍布上,以往線柱餅表有主要,尤以表格和柱圖長期領先,雜以混和圖,流程表和地圖基本上僅做裝點,可是2020年出現了十分出乎意料的狀況 ---柱圖和表格仍然持續上升,地圖題“迅猛發展”,而大作文題目內容涉及到范疇更廣,難度系數有所增加,給學生們產生考試困惑.

Task 1 考題剖析


17年的題型與2017年相較為有很大的轉變,這也證實了雅思小作文混亂出卷的“內幕”,另外也提示學生“雨露均沾”,好好地復習這六大類題型,以防考后又扎心了老鐵.柱圖替代了2017年最常出的表格圖變成了考頻最大的考試題種類,占35%.且表格盡管選擇題技巧有一定的降低,也位列第二;值得一提的是,地圖題變成評委第三受寵溺話題,占16%;而曲線圖、餅狀圖和流程表選擇題技巧雖然有小幅度起伏,但選擇題技巧相對穩定,約占有率10%; 2020年的混和圖只出現了1次.


好运快三开户從動態圖、靜態數據圖這一角度觀察,在其中動態圖的出卷占比超出其他類型的數據圖表,占38%;而靜態數據圖的出卷率居第二位占27%;而將動靜態數據數據圖表融合起來調查也變成一種新的調查方法,占10%;值得一提的是,流程表與地圖題占有率也許多 ,23%;組成類數據圖表2020年一共只考了1次,占2%.

Task 1 小作文分析


Task 2 大作文題目分析


發表于 2020-05-08
IOS papers
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